M. Brann, 1915 Festschrift excerpt


English Translation by Irene Newhouse, January 1996 fromM. Brann, "Etwas von der schlesischen Landgemeinde," in Festschrift zum siebzigsten Geburtstage Jakob Guttmans, (Leipzig: Gustav Fock, GmbH, 1915), pp. 225-255.

Some editorial comments and paragraph breaks were added by Irene Newhouse and Will Yancey. Brann's footnote number sequencing began on each page. For convenience, they have been renumbered consecutively in this translation. Brann's footnote about the relation between the Gratz brothers and Graetzer family is endnote 17 in this document. This Web page was last modified on January 16, 1996.

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[ Return to Silesian family index page at famhist.htm ]


[Brann is discussing the legal changes in the status of Jews that occurred when Prussia took over Silesia].

[This excerpt begins at M. Brann's page 241.]

The most inhuman effects were those of the marriage decree. Also, under Prussian domination only 1 son of each family had residence rights, all others had to leave the city. Under Frederick the Great there were no less than 10 decrees, all of which ere aimed at curbing the rise in the Jewish population [1]. Only after thorough examination of origin, age, means, present & future residence, & consideration of the projected occupation of the bridal couple could a marriage license be granted. Each certificate required an outlay of 30 Taler. In addition, the Landrabbi had to charge his betrothal fees. Because he was the only one allowed to marry rural Jews [2].

Very few rural Jews could attain comfortable affluence & married bliss. "Nothing but poverty & beggary" [3] reigned among them, as judged by a scion who'd been forced abroad in 1763. Under all of this, the unfortunates persisted, obeyed the gruesome law, & sighed under the hard oppression. Because they were only too well aware that there was nowhere in Christendom they could expect a greater measure of tolerance and sympathy. It hasn't been transmitted to us, where those unfortunates who had to leave their homeland because of the marriage decree, & reach for their hiking sticks, because they couldn't obtain residence permits, went. Only single leaves blown in the wind inform us of the abiding love with which the evicted sons & brothers clung to that far off corner, in which their ancestors had lived & now their parents & younger siblings sat & earned their scanty bread. It's only been preserved for us through the fact that it was of value & importance for the community to which the recipient belonged [4]. Around the time in which Silesia permanently came into Prussian possession through the Hubertsburg Treaty [2/15/1763], it flew into the hamlet Wielowisz or Langendorf & undoubtedly elicited great & lasting excitement there. It brought the Jewish community there into a context which will also rouse the interest of the present reader.

[Following paragraph begins at the middle of M. Brann's page 242.]

It was about 100 years since the first Jew, the grandfather of the letter writer, had settled in the locale. The well-preserved record book, that conscientiously preserves the record of the statutes, taxes, Synagogue-inventory, the meetings, receipts & expenses of the Community, records the following about its founding [5]: "The first settler here was the late elegant R. Jonathan, son of the learned R. Jacob Koppel Bloch, born in Krakow & raised & educated in Prague. He was the brother of the learned R Urschrago [modern form is Uri Shraga] Feibusch, who was first in his youth Rabbi in Tarnow & later in Krakow [6] in the days of the famous R. Nathan Spiro, the editor of S[efer] Megelleh Amukoth, had been Rosch Beth Din & is buried immediately adjacent to the famous man. In his dying hour R. Jonathan said to the members of the pious brotherhood [i. e. the Chevra Kaddisha] who stood around his bed, loudly & clearly: "Our wise men speak of 3 kinds of grace [7]. One of those is grace of place. That applies also to this place. Because from my settling here to my dying hour has been exactly 58 years by the reckoning of [Hebrew word]". His death day was Wednesday 4/22/1722 [8].

He had considered the most important Community functions, the holding of regular services & the cemetery [9], thereby assuring the permanence of the new settlement. His virtues, his piety, his sense of community were the best inheritance that he left his descendants. His son, R. Hirsch, belonged to the committee that negotiated with the lord of the manor in 1748 & 1749 for permission to fence the cemetery & for obtaining Sabbath strings [don't know what this refers to; sorry] [10]. The most beautiful Temple hangings & Torah covers & the most valuable candelabra for the Synagogue were the donations of his sons & grandsons [11], But in the 3rd generation, among the children of R. Hirsch, the unrest which the new marriage decree spread over the rural Jews began. Already in Habsburg days, as mentioned above, only 1 son inherited his father's residence rights. But for each one who could pay, there was still a way that led around the strict edict. But under Hohenzollern rule there were only stern obligations.

Who was allowed, was ensured of protection, as long as he carried out his obligations. Who, according to law, had to leave, couldn't remain. Barely grown out of boyhood, the descendants had to go, to search for a new home. A glance into this new time is given us by the following family letter. Its recipient was the above mentioned Hirsch Bloch in Langendorf, the sender was his son Solomon in London. The letter reads as follows:[This letter begins at M. Brann's page 245.]

"Praise be to God. London, Friday, 1/28/1763.

Peace to my dear father R. Zwi [Hebrew for Hirsch] & my Mrs. mother, Mrs. Fromet, may she live.

Dear, dear parents. Yours letter of 12/12/1762 came only last week, because of 5 weeks' bitter cold, & mail wasn't delivered regularly. Sorry that my dear mother is so sickly. Wish her speedy recovery. Enclose a letter of exchange for 12 pounds 4 shillings for 1/2 year from last Rosh-Chodesh Elul to coming Rosh-Chodesh Nissan & 2 guineas for my mother for coffee & sugar. Will regularly send such, as long as I live. Should it be, God be praised, His will that I die before you, so I've bought for both your lives 12 pounds per year, each 1/2 year 6 pounds, through the elegant R. Jechiel Praeger [13], who lives here & is brother to the Praegers in Amsterdam [14]. To say, when one of you, God forbid dies, the other will have the entire sum of 12 pounds annually. Now, as soon as I see, how my brother Koppel's, may there be peace over him, affairs turn out, I intend to spend 300 pounds more and ....15 to you, while you live & after your death divide among brothers & their orphaned children according to my will. Now will write your regularly from start to finish, how it is with my blessed brother, his testament, and affairs.

You must know, dear parents, when my blessed brother came from Amsterdam in 1757, he was quite poor. To say what he spent on the trip & what the robbery in Breslau & the mishap [16] in Amsterdam with illness, with which we didn't want to disturb you, & didn't know what to do, because he was ashamed to return to service [17], and no money to be merchant. But his honest demeanor & the regard Christian merchants had for him knew that he had great insights[? & that's Brann's ?; apparently that word isn't clear] & wares in America. He received an offer for a load of wares worth 3000 Sterling, he should pay an insurance [18] of nearly 200 pounds, & I should stand bond for the capital. As soon as this was offered, he didn't want to accept, because he feared, God forbid, that he might meet harm. Then wanted to register [? -again Brann's] with me & take neither 200 pounds nor my surety. But the merchant didn't want my bond either. And loaned my blessed brother 210 pounds - 210 pounds - & went with the wares to Philadelphia, & when he got there & couldn't sell his wares right off, he nebbish [19] went crazy because he was afraid I'd lose out on his account. & the merchant likewise as Ber & [Hebrew] [20] can as well. That is, in any case, because there was war, he, God be praised, was lucky & got better & before long a partner wrote, which merchant sent him with the same sum of wares, which was about in 1759. Thereafter he couldn't agree with the partner & in the meantime I had a big mess with bankruptcies & other things. Had to write my blessed brother, if he could spare me my money, wrote him all the details. As soon as my letter received, saw to it that I had lost over 200 pounds. So had for me & first ....[21]. To say, my own 210 pounds & the rest loaned me, if needed & wrote thereby, if not needed, hold it & the 210 pounds back to the government for parents which yields about 9 pounds annually. Right after this I received a letter where he drew on me about 100 pounds 7 wrote me that unfortunately he's rather ill & being treated & been told to go near water in a warm climate & that he'sthrough with his partner & as soon as he comes to Philadelphia, to come here by ship & then to see to it to organize everything on account of parents. Appears that he made his testament in Philadelphia 4/14/1760 & went to a place named Rhode Island on account of his health & built a Community & Shul [22], where my brother gave 5 guineas for it & there stayed for the whole Sumer [that is, the High Holy Days, Rosh Hashanah & Yom Kippur]& then traveled to New York & advised by all the doctors, that were in the army. In addition I sent him drugs from here & all advised unanimously that he should immediately come to England. Only his last letter, that wrote me from New York, about 5 weeks before his death, that he had to go to Philadelphia to better order his affairs. Now, as soon as he got there, he didn't live more than 3 weeks. I didn't hear this until after Pentecost from other people in New York. Then, about a year after his death, his testament arrived, which stated as follows: First he orders that all his debts [23] be paid & burial expenses & then he gave the cemetery 10 pounds according to their valuation [24], is 6 pounds sterling. & to Beer & Jechiel with descendants about 30 pounds sterling & R. David Frenks & also Matthes Busch [25], a Jew, his executor & left them 5% of everything, if they can take over all the debts, then, at the last, he left the remainder to me, to do with as I please. & if I were to predecease him, then he left it to you & the siblings & their heirs - also 20 pounds for our Shul in Wilowisch. But if I live after his death, every penny to me, to do with, as I please & to divide, as I please. Now, dear parents, which will be, next Purim, already 2 years [26] since his death, I got no more than 100 pounds, God knows, how his affairs turned out. The rest is all comprised of debts among Jews, of whom 3 or 4 are already bankrupt. In short, there's nothing to say to this. His partner is here & fears his affairs won't turn out as well as he thought. At any rate, I rely on this, as I live, you should have yours as at any time & after my death as I've mentioned.

Haven't had any letters from Philadelphia since 4 or 5 months. As soon as get one from these 2 brothers [namely Beer & Jechiel] will forward. The winds were contrary 2 months & the war also hindered. Now believe will soon be peace. With God's help everything will go better.

With regards to the orphans, already gave my word before, that will do all in my power [27], for God's will. What do you want from me? Why are you always haranguing me & sendingsuch merciless begging letters? I believe, if I were in jail, it would be all one to you [28], if only I sent money. Did you believe more than 5 years that.... [29] before you with family & had the damages, but as you know, how I've been robbed by both my brothers & to write me how it goes with me if he [30] can do it or not; [Hebrew] [31], I'm used to hammer blows. All [?], [?], that, that I [?] me all my days, no pleasant letters, nothing but poverty & beggary [32]. Therefore try, dear parents, to write me, how you are & when the time comes, to care for the orphans, let me know. Your money you will get, God willing, regularly all the days of my life & after my death.

Dear father, now I ask you, do me the favor, not to make a rumor of this & to tell me in all truth & honesty, to let me know what the expenses might be, to build a new Shul inWielowisch & don't be in a hurry, until you can write all the details. Have my Resong [don't know what that is!] & how much a Mikveh [33] would cost to build. Will let me know without fail. As to the rest, dear dear Father & Mother, live well, greet my brothers, their wives & children & all our family members, & in particular, inform my in-laws that their letter from last week's post received & will set up.... [34]. Wish my dear .... from me your son, who prays for your long life, the modest Shelmo, son of R. Zewi Bloch.

NB: will soon write me an answer about the exchange & my father will write his name on the address because I've had his name written here in the same way.

Address: Mr. Hirschel Jonas Henry

p. Breslau Longindorff

p. Tost.

It's true, that all the extant family letters & the comments thereupon preserved, appear at first to be a large heap of more or less interesting petty matters. In their entirety they form strong proof for intellectual & social strength resting on tight bonds of belief & descent, which need only to be released in order to become effective in their uniqueness.

The brothers Gratz, who had to leave, because the most natural of all rights coming to Man by virtue of his birth, that of residence, was denied them in their birth country, had to wander across the ocean, earn citizenship there after a short time, come to fortune, influence & respect & unfold an uncommonly extensive philanthropic activity to the benefit of their religious community & their fatherland, which under their eyes & with their lively involvement, was fighting for its ultimate independence [35]. This is true of the next generation in an even higher measure. Authors of such overriding prominence as a Walter Scott & Washington Irving deemed it a favor to enjoy the company of Rebecca [36], the daughter of Michael Gratz & Walter Scott delivered, as one is assured, an effectivedescription of his friend in the "Rebecca" of his novel Ivanhoe. & her brother Hyman [37] founded, with his rich means, Gratz College in Philadelphia, which is eagerly occupied with the task of furthering & nurturing the science of Judaism.

The branches of the families Bloch & Graetzer which stayed at home are by no means behind their American cousins. Geh. Sanitaetsrat Jonas Graetzer, for example, has made a name for himself as medical author [38], was in Breslau directing physician of the Jewish Hospital & for a time led the City Council & for many years the Representative Assembly of the Jewish Community. Another descendants of this same family, Alfred Graetzer [39] from Gross Strehlitz, was a talented artist & died young in Berlin.

But of the Blochs one [40] is of the leadership of the "Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Wissenschaft des Judentums". His cousin is in the committee of the Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeindebundes & his nephew, who has the same name, was recently distinguished on the field by an Iron Cross.

The same drama as with these individuals who fled the narrow confines of home played itself out similarly with all the rural Jews who stayed home. What these smalltime dealers all became after the emancipation of 2/11/1812 freed them from their bonds & they'd become Prussian citizens! A reliable statistic of 1842, which comprises more than 1853 Silesian families of about 10,000 souls, gives an exhaustive answer [41]. There were only 752 merchants among them any more. Of the rest, there were 45 intellectuals & artists, 477 artisans, who worked with 254 Jewish apprentices & journeymen. 482 family heads earned their living as innkeepers & tavern keepers, drivers & messengers, 97 held Community positions. 121 young people were serving in the army, even though Jews weren't at the time subject to service. 61 held honorary posts in cities; 48 as Council members & 13 as members of the Magistrate. Among the Council members, 5 were chairmen or protocol officers. There were about 200 rural families, of which 10 owned estates, whose management was partly recognized as model. Of the 1772 school age children, 32 were at higher institutes, 993 at Jewish & 738 at Christian local schools; the remaining 9 were presumably being educated outside the district.

I've recently published on the extraordinary feats of Silesian Jews in the exact sciences [42]. In the present context, I'll only mention the 3 upper Silesians in the field of Judaic Scholarship: David Rosin, Philipp Bloch & the celebrant to whom this Festschrift is dedicated. He doesn't need the praise & fame. Their contemporaries all know what prominent lasting contributions all 3 have made to Jewish religious philosophical literature.


Endnotes

1See the decrees of 9/29/1744, 3/19/1746, Oct 1747, 12/7/1750, 3/2/1751, 4/1/1755,11/30/1762,12/4/1763, 8/20/1773, & 11/26/1778 in Zimmermann, op. cit. p 76 ff.

2 cf Landsberger op cit p 15 f.

3 vide infra p. 252, text & footnote 2.

4 It can be found in the Langendorfer Kehilla book, a folio which contains about 50 German, 1 Polish, & 42 Hebrew documents from 1762 to 1842; # 14 among the Hebrew documents.

5 In the orginal, the notice says - it's item 3 for Oct 1750: [Hebrew paragraph- footnote 2 on p 242]

6 In Krakow he appears under the name [Hebrew - footnote 1 on p 243] Ur Schraga Feiwisch b. R. Jakob Koppel R Wolf Dajjan [Dajjan = dayyan = judge of the Jewish Community. You don't have to be a Rabbi to be Dayyan]. He was member of the Rabbinate not only in the days of R. Nathan Spiro [died 7/30/1633], but also under his successors. He signed the statutes for education & instruction with R. Joel Serkes, [I don't know what the abbreviation d. d. means. I think the date that follows, 1/11/1638 is that of the statutes]. He died the night before Thursday 7/28/1667 & was buried Thursday. We learn more about the family of his wife Zipperl, died 10/3/1664, in Wetstein [Hebrew title given], vol II; see also Eschkol, Krakow 1913, p 29. His son Chaim signed on 2/14/1674 [Krakow Pinkas Kehillot fol 25b] & on 2/1/1695 [fol 253a] a few documents in his position as co-chairman of the Community. The document of Thrusday 2/3/1684 also has his signature [see [Hebrew words] ed. Freimann, Warsaw 1904, p 22].

His father-in-law Jona b. R. David R. Siseles was also chairman in Krakow & died there 12/31/1680 [Krakower Yizkor, fol 197b]. A son of Chaim, named Jakob Bloch, was, like his grandfather, member of the Rabbinate in his home Community & as such signed a document of 5/15/1724, Pinkas Kehillot, fol. 60a. This from a letter from Wetstein, d. d. Vienna, 10/26/1914]. Cf also Friedberg, [Hebrew title], 2nd Edition, (1904), p 27, comment.

7 Sotah 47a, cf. jer. Joma 41b.

8 Footnote 3 of p 243. Here he gives his grave inscription, in Hebrew. It continues onto the next page.

9 So we read in the next-to-last line of his epitaph. The oldest tombstone that I found in the cemetery has the erroneous date Sunday 3/1/1702 & stands at the head of Mrs. Jittel, daughter of the learned R. Isak Eisak. The cemetery was presumeably acquired some years before this. Because probably the wife of R. Jonathan Bloch, Berachah, daughter of R. Salmon, who diesd 7/17/1694 found her resting place here already. A list organized by month of death is contained in a volume in 'narrow folio' with the ungrammatical, unorthographical & factually incorrect entry: [Hebrew sentence], 7/4/1853. The death date of the aforementioned Berachah & many other people who died before 1764 are also already in this list. The records # 1,2,18,25,35,36 of the record book cited on p 242, note 1 also refer to the cemetery. They date from the years 1762, 1820, & 1839.

10 cf. the Book of Statutes [above, p 242] folio 10.

11 ibid, fol 6 ff.

12 In the record book mentioned above [p 242, note 1], #14 Hebrew. I have, in order to increase legibility, translated the Hebrew immediately following, in italics within square brackets & occasionally inserted an explanatory note. [NB: this suggests that, in spite of being filed under Hebrew, the letter was apparently about half German, half Hebrew].

13 How & in what way genealogically connected to Wolf Praeger, who participated in the founding of the Hambro Synagogue on 5/15/1725 [Kaufmann, Transact. of Jew. Hist. Soc. II, 104 ff., cf. Hyamson, History of the Jews in England, p 241 ff] is unknown to me. See also Kaufmann-Friedenthal, die Familie Gomperz, p 320.

14 The family names Praeger, Prag, van Praag, von Praag, & also von Praagh are often encountered in Amsterdam & the Hague [cf. van Zuiden, De hoogduitsche Joden in's Gravenhage (Haag, 1913, 4), appendix IV, C, CI; [Hebrew] year 1789, p 376; Izr. Letterbode, vol IV, p 86 ff]. Nothing is known about their genealogical relationship. My esteemed friend & advisor in these matters, Mr. S. Seeligmann in Amsterdam is reminded first of the [Hebrew phrase] mentioned several times in vol IV of Letterbode [pp. 8,88,92,94].

15 4 letters missing

16 = Schlimm-Massel

17 [This is footnote 4 on M. Brann's page 246.] Naturally he doesn't mean [repeats the Hebrew word used for service in text] as is in the text, but [another Hebrew word]. Factually, one deduces from this that Salmon's brother, Koppel Bloch, or, as he was known officially, Jakob Henry, had already been active as an employee in Philadelphia. At the time his countryman, cousin, & in-law [Hebrew phrase] or Barnard Gratz [born 1738 in Langendorf, died 4/20/1801 in Baltimore] had already been there 3 years, & was at first business assistant at David Frank, then, probably immediately after his marriage in 1760, independent merchant. Jakob Henry's letter, d. d. New York [Hebrew equivalent in brackets] 1/6/1761, is the 2nd oldest document about their settling in Philadelphia in the possession of the Gratz family [cf. Rosenbach, H. P., The Jews of Philadelphia, prior to 1800, p 6 f., Morais, H. S., The Jews of Philadelphia, p 269]. He naturally touches first on the time in which Jakob Henry was in America for the 2nd time. [I'm not sure just what the subject of this sentence is supposed to be].

[COMMENT BY WILL YANCEY: The book by Morais has been reprinted as American Theological Library Association (ATLA) microfiche number 1988-0117, and is available at many libraries.

Gratz & Henry were, according to the death lists, epitaphs, & other news & intimations related as follows [Hebrew word for the relationship, drat it all!], who naturally came neither from the Grafschaft Steiermark nor from the Herzogtum Troppau, where in the 17th. century there certainly were no Jews, but simply from Graetz [Kreis Buk, in the Province of Posen], was through his daughter Berachah Jonathan Bloch's father-in-law & probably moved to Langendorf himself sooner or later. Berachah's brother Meier had a son Salomon [died 4/18/1744], who in turn had 4 sons: Jonathan [died in Gross Strehlitz 11/18/1764], Chaim [died in Tworog 1/10/1764], Beer & Jechiel, & 2 daughters: Gitel [died 3/22/1772] & Lea that are known to us. Of the sons, Beer & Jechiel went to America & were known in their new guise as Barnard & Michael Gratz. The 2 daughters married 2 brothers Bloch [Jonathan, died 5/20/1801 & Feiwel, died, according to information from his grandson & nameake Philipp Bloch in Posen, in the year 1804), which were, through their father Zwi Hirsch the grandsons of the founder of the Community. Koppel & Salomon, 2 other sons of Zwi Hirsch Bloch, moved to England & America & reappear as Jakob & Solomon Henry.

[COMMENT BY WILL YANCEY: The above footnote appeared on M. Brann's page 246. The above Chaim Graetzer, who died in 1764 was the great-great-great-grandfather of Gunther R. Graetzer (1893-1967). The name Chaim appears as Hyman or Heymann in some other texts.]

[COMMENT BY WILL YANCEY: Prior to formal birth records the family name was either Graetzer or Gratzer with an umlaut over the "a". The brothers, Beer and Jechiel Graetzer, changed their names to Barnard and Michael Gratz when they emigrated to Pennsylvania. Their relatives who remained in Silesia formally adopted the Graetzer name when they received citizenship rights after 1812. I have never seen any sources that show a direct family relationship between the Gratz brothers of Philadelphia and the famous German Jewish historian, Heinrich Graetz.]

18 Presumeably Assecurantia is meant.

19 [Hebrew], probably unfortunately.

20 The last 2 words are crossed out in the text. The Jechiel crossed out here, who is mentioned in the letters of 6/2/1898 & 6/16/1902, of Mr. Mayer Sulzberger in Philadelphia, on his gravestone as [Hebrew] was brother of the above-mentioned [p 246, note 4] Baer or Barnard Gratz. Born 1740 in Langendorf, he emigrated to London & from there in 1759 to America, where he first succeeded his brother in the business of David Frank & later was his brother's partner. A letter from his brother Chaim [Hebrew] d. d. [more Hebrew], that is, Tworog [village about 7 km east of Langendorf] 2/18/1759 sent him in London was addressed in care of his cousin & in-law Solomon Henry, the author of our letter, at the time living in Jenowes Coffee House. It contains interesting news that are fortunately complemented by the Langendorfer records & shows the conditions there in the same light as this letter. It mentions, among other things, that the father had 2 more brothers, Mordechai & Jesaja [= Isaiah- my comment, not Brann's], which, as Sulzberger remarks, were "both dalfonim' [don't ask me what that is!] & a third brother Isak, who was employed as [Hebrew word] at his brother's son's R. Jonathan at Gross Strehlitz & was "evidently not a kozin". Of this brother Jonathan, it says in the letter that he exhorts Michael to return home quickly, because "he has a good shidduch in view" for him, translates Sulzberger, "with the daughter of R. Joseph Tost". In the end the [Hebrew phrase], who married in Piskowitz or Peiskretscham instead of Philadelphia & died in Langendor 7/21/1803. Perhaps Mr. Sulzberger finally decides, as he's long intended, to publish both letters from 1759 & 1761. Michael Gratz died 9/12/1808. For more about him & his descendants, see Morais, p 270 f. & Jew. Encyc.

21 3 or 4 words illegible here.

22 Indeed there was here in 1762 a Community of 60-70 members & decided to build a synagogue, cf. Wiernik, History of the Jews in America, p 74. According to our letter, this date was actually already in 1761.

23 The word is correctly: [other Hebrew word]

24 Presumeably according to American valuation. At the end of this is documentary proof for the early existence of a Gratz family section of the Cemetery on Spruce Street in Philadelphia, which is still known as the Gratz Reservation. It is assumed that the cemetery was laid out shortly before the finaly organization of the Community Mikweh Israel, among whose first chairmen Barnard & Michael Gratz were, & that at the time Michael Gratz had already reserved a section for burials of his family members. cf. Morais, p 201 f.

25 Undoubtedly Matthias Busch is meant here, who was, as were David Franks & Barnard & Michael Gratz among the signers fo the Non-importation Resolutions of 10/25/1765. It's well known that these resolutions led to the war which lead to American independence [Morais, p 22, Jew. Encycl. IX, 671a]. M. Busch's son Salomon was, by the way, the first American Jew to attain the rank of Lt. Colonel, cf. Morais, p 456 f.

26 Jakob Henry Bloch died 3/20/1761, according to this.

27 correctly [Hebrew word].

28 Brann explains the turn of phrase...

29 a section of about 8-10 letters is missing

30 see above, footnote 2 [27 in this translation]

31 That's 'Mah' in German. In High German, we'd say "Pah!"

32 In the original [Hebrew]. see above p 241.

33 The German documents 3-5 [from 1771] in the Community Book deal with the Synagogue, #15 from 1803 with the Mikveh.

34 a piece of about 9 letters is torn off.

35 see Morais, 1l,ff, 22, 25,210, 269 f, 444, 459.

36 born 3/14/1781, died 8/24/1869. see Morais op. cit. esp., 147ff, 271 f, & the article "The Original of Rebecca in Ivanhoe" in Century Magazine, 1882, p 679 ff, cited in Jew. Encycl. VI, 83b.

37 b 9/23/1767, d. 12/18/1856. see Morais, op. cit. & esp. 269ff & the introduction to # 1 of the Publications of the Gratz College [Philadelphia 1897]

38 see Pagel, Biogr. Lex. hervorr. Aerzte des 19. Jahrhunderts. He was born in Tost 10/19/1806, d. Breslau 11/25/1889.

39 b 12/28/1875 in Gr. Strehlitz, d. 8/11/1911 in Berlin. He was presumeably adecendant of Jesaia, mentioned on p248, note 2. cf. Simon Graetzer, Graetzerscher Familienkalendar [Breslau 1879], p 20 & appendix p 64; Karl Schwarz, Alfred Graetzer. A memorial article, [Berlin 1911] p 8, 11ff.

40 see p 248 above, note 4 & further down.

41 It was done by Abraham Muhr in Pless & published in Wilh. Freund's journal "Zur Judenfrage in Deutschland", vol II, p 53 ff.

42 Frech & Kampers, Schles. Landeskunde [Leipzig 1913] p 139.